July 16, 2024

What Does NPS Full Form Stand For, and How Does It Work?

NPS Full Form

NPS Full Form

The National Pension System (NPS) is a government-regulated program designed to provide retirement benefits to Indian citizens. The NPS full form is the National Pension System, and it serves as a crucial financial support system during retirement. This article delves into the NPS, its objectives, features, and the workings of the NPS pension calculator.

What is the National Pension System (NPS)?

The National Pension System (NPS) is a voluntary, defined contribution retirement savings scheme administered by the Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA). The scheme allows individuals to contribute systematically to their pension account while working. These contributions are then invested in various portfolios managed by professional fund managers, including corporate debentures, shares, and government securities. The goal is to generate long-term growth and financial security for the contributors.

Objectives of the National Pension System

The primary objectives of the NPS include:

  • Ensuring Financial Security in Retirement: NPS aims to provide a steady income stream to individuals after they retire.
  • Government Regulation: The scheme is regulated by a government-appointed authority, ensuring transparency and security.
  • Professional Fund Management: Investments are managed by professional fund managers to optimise returns.
  • Tax Benefits: NPS offers tax benefits to encourage long-term savings.
  • Flexibility and Portability: NPS allows individuals to choose their investment options and switch between fund managers. It is portable, meaning individuals can continue their contributions regardless of job or location changes.

NPS Details and Features

The NPS offers two types of accounts: Tier 1 and Tier 2.

Tier 1 Account

The Tier 1 account is the primary retirement account with several tax benefits. Subscribers must contribute a minimum of Rs. 1,000 annually. Contributions up to Rs. 1.5 Lakh are eligible for deductions under Section 80CCD (1) of the Income Tax Act. Additionally, an extra benefit of up to Rs. 50,000 is available under Section 80CCD (1B).

Tier 2 Account

The Tier 2 account is optional and provides more flexibility regarding withdrawals and contributions but does not offer tax benefits. It can be opened alongside the Tier 1 account, allowing subscribers to manage their investments more freely.

Investment Options in NPS

NPS provides two investment choices:

  • Active Choice: This option allows individuals to allocate their assets to equities, corporate bonds, and government securities.
  • Auto Choice: This option automatically adjusts the asset allocation based on the subscriber’s age, reducing equity exposure as they approach retirement.

Eligibility for NPS

Eligibility criteria for the NPS scheme include:

  • Individuals: Indian citizens between 18 and 70 years of age, including NRIs and OCIs.
  • Corporations: Corporations can also participate in facilitating employees’ retirement planning.

NPS Pension Calculator

The NPS pension calculator is a tool that helps individuals estimate the total amount they will accumulate at retirement based on their contributions, tenure, and expected rate of return. 

It uses the formula: A= P(1+r/n)^nt


  • P stands for Principal sum
  • R/r stands for rate of interest per annum
  • N/n stands for the number of times the interest compounds
  • T/t stands for total tenure

For example, a 34-year-old contributing Rs. 3,000 monthly for 26 years with an annual ROI of 10% would accumulate approximately Rs. 44.35 Lakh at retirement.

Benefits of NPS

The NPS offers numerous benefits, including:

  • Higher Returns: A portion of contributions is invested in equities, offering higher returns than traditional savings.
  • Tax Efficiency: Contributions are eligible for tax deductions, making them tax-efficient investments.
  • Risk Management: NPS limits equity exposure to manage risk effectively.
  • Regulation and Transparency: The scheme is closely monitored by the PFRDA, ensuring security.
  • Flexibility: Subscribers can adjust contributions and manage their accounts online.


Understanding the NPS’s full form and workings can significantly enhance your retirement planning strategy. The National Pension System offers a structured and regulated way to save for retirement, with benefits such as tax savings, professional fund management, and flexible investment options. Using tools like the NPS pension calculator, individuals can plan their contributions effectively to ensure a secure and comfortable retirement.